Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nur Ikhwan Mohamad
  • Associate Professor in Strength & Conditioning,

Qualifications

PhD, MSc.Sports Science, BSc. Sports Science, Dip. Health & Fitness

Memberships & Affiliations:
  • Malaysian Strength & Conditioning Association (MSCA) 

Teaching Areas
  • Strength & Conditioning

  • Research Method

Research Areas
  • mechanical, metabolic and neural responses and/or adaptation to strength and conditioning training

Biography

Dr. Nur Ikhwan Mohamad is an Associate Professor in Strength & Conditioning at the Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI). Earned a doctored from Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, he is also an alumnus of MARA University of Technology (UiTM) and Bukit Jalil Sports School (BJSS). His research interest includes mechanical, metabolic and neural responses and/or adaptation to strength and conditioning training. He has published over 50 peer reviewed publications, supervised 2 PhD and 26 Master’s students to completion. Actively involved in strength & conditioning consultation with tagline "fitness, performance & health" which appropriately described target area of his works. In term of administrative experiences, Ikhwan's has been part of his Faculty's management team for 8 years as Head of Department, Deputy Dean and as Dean of the faculty. He was Editor in Chief (2013-2018) for Journal of Sports Science & Coaching (JSSPJ). His past and current involvement with other organizations includes as visiting research fellow at Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand(SPRINZ) (2017), Research fellow at Thaksin University Thailand (2016-2018), Board Member for Malaysia Health Promotion Board (2017-2018),Advisory Panel for National Coaching Academy (2013-2020), and Board member of Perak Sports Council Management Board (2016-2017). Ikhwan was also part of the pioneer group for the establishment of Malaysian Strength & Conditioning Association (MSCA) in 2011. Previously served as President and Honorary Secretary to the MSCA (2011-2019). His official website is at www.sigconditioning.com. 

Current Research Projects

PhD current research projects

 

Performance load monitoring for strength and conditioning program (PhD student Mohd Hafizuddin Baki)

 

On-field performance analysis and transfer of training (PhD student Mohd Syafiq Miswan)

 

Effect of badminton special speed training method towards success score and time perception predictive skills performance of badminton players (PhD candidate Su Zhanguo)

 

The effect of basic Malaysian commando training of weeks on physical, biochemical and hydration status of successful commando candidates (PhD candidate Azlan Derwish)

 

The effect of vertical versus horizontal based strength training on muscle architecture, muscle activation and kinetic output and relationships to method of instructions given (PhD candidate Roshdan  Ahmad)

 

Mechanical and metabolic output for upper limb loading with wearable resistance for martial arts specific movement (PhD student Alhossin Alali Azzam)

Masters current research projects

 

Metabolic effect of specific fire & rescue tactical exercises on fire & rescue department of Malaysia`s recruits (Master's student Muhamad Hafiz  Zainol)

The effect of electrical muscle stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus traditional strength training and foam rolling on power development (Master's candidate Jamalludin Mohamed)

The effect of three different resistance level of using rubber band as part of warm up tool on vertical jump performance (Master's candidate Nursyaidatul Hafiza Madzlan)

Comparisons of continuous versus interval based workout on metabolic responses (Master's candidate Ahmad Shairazi Abdul Fatah)

BACK TO MENU >

Selected Publications 2011-2013
Selected Publications 2014-2019

Main Author:

 

1.  Mohamad, N. I., Nadzalan, A. M., Zakaria, J., & Elumalai, G. (2019). Comparison between student centered (classroom technology) versus lecturer centered (hands-on) learning approach in physical conditioning short course. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), 8(7), 1485-1486.

2. Mohamad, N.I. (2019). Komponen kecergasan fizikal, prinsip latihan dan  pembolehubah latihan In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 107-122). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

3.  Mohamad, N.I. (2019). Kaedah latihan umum kekuatan dan daya tahan otot In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 132-173). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

4. Mohamad, N.I. (2019). Kaedah latihan umum kelenturan otot In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 174-181). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

5. Mohamad, N.I., & Hamezah, RS. (2019). Kaedah pemulihan prestasi fizikal selepas sesi latihan, pertandingan dan tugasan taktikal  In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 182-193). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

6. Mohamad, N.I., Jusoh, H., & Shafii, MFH. (2019). Alatan dan kelengkapan latihan umum  In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 182-193). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

7. Mohamad, N.I. (2019). Konsep asas, struktur dan system kejurulatihan suaian fizikal In Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Ali Md Nadzalan & Muhamad Hafiz Zainol Editor (Ed.), Suaian fizikal taktikal bomba dan penyelamat (pp 12-22). Tanjong Malim, Perak: Penerbit UPSI.

8. Mohamad, N. I., Hamezah, R. S., & Nadzalan, A. M. (2018). Metabolic cost of continuous body weight circuit training with aerobic-based exercise interval for muscle strength and endurance on young healthy adults. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Future of ASEAN (ICoFA) 2017–Volume 2 (pp. 737-746). Springer, Singapore.

9. Mohamad, N. I., Chinnasee, C., Hemapandha, W., Vongjaturapat, N., Makaje, N., Ratanarojanakool, P., & Pimjan, L. (2017). Sports science-based research on the sport of muay thai: A review of the literature. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 14(8), 615-625.

10. Mohamad, N., Kasim, N. F., & Nadzalan, A. (2017) Mechanical and metabolic effect of standardized load resistance training protocol on untrained participants. International Scientific Journal of Kinesiology, 86-95.

11. Mohamad, N. I., Nosaka, K., & Cronin, J. (2016). Kinematics and kinetics of high and low velocity resistance training equated by time under tension: Implications for hypertrophy training. In Regional Conference on Science, Technology and Social Sciences (RCSTSS 2014) (pp. 475-485). Springer, Singapore.

12. Mohamad, N. I., Rumpf, M. C., Tan, E. C., & Abas, N. G. (2015). Cardio-respiratory responses to standardized load resistance training in recreationally active participants. Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise, 4(1).

13. Mohamad, N. I., Nosaka, K., & Cronin, J. (2014). Effect of stretching during the inter-set rest periods on the kinematics and kinetics of high and low velocity resistance loading schemes: implications for hypertrophy. Jurnal Sains Sukan dan Pendidikan Jasmani, 3(1), 45-57.

 

BACK TO MENU >

Co-Author

14.  Nadzalan, A. M., Low, J. F. L., Azzfar, M. S., Shazana, N., Waqqash, E., & Mohamad, N. I. (2019). The effects of resistance training with different focus attention on muscular strength: Application to teaching methods in physical conditioning class. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), 8(8), 16-19.

15.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Ishak, A., Malik, Z. A., Wan Chik, W. F., & Muthusamy, S. (2019). Muscle activation during unilateral and bilateral biceps curl exercises among trained men. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(3), 3381-3383.

16.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). Relationship between muscle architecture and jumping abilities among recreationally active men. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Future of ASEAN (ICoFA) 2017–Volume 2 (pp. 729-736). Springer, Singapore.

17.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). Lower body muscle activation during low load versus high load forward lunge among untrained men. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(3S), 205-217.

18.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). Relationship between muscle architecture and badminton-specific physical abilities. Human Movement, 19(1), 44-50.

19.  Salleh, O. M., Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Rahmat, A., Mustafa, M. A., & Tan, K. (2018, May). Repeated sprint ability with inclusion of changing direction among veteran soccer players. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1020, No. 1, p. 012007). IOP Publishing.

20.  Chinnasee, C., Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Sazili, A. H. A., Hemapandha, W., Khan, T. K. A., ... & Tan, K. (2018, May). Kinematics analysis of dominant and non-dominant lower limb during knee strike among muaythai beginners. In journal of physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1020, No. 1, p. 012006). IOP Publishing.

21.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Low, J. F. L., Malik, Z. A., Sankaravel, M., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). The effects of step versus jump forward lunge as single exercise training on badminton specific physical abilities. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research, 9(1), 701-709.

22.  Nadzalan, A. M., Azmi, S. H., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., Tan, K., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). Kinematics analysis of dominant and non-dominant lower limb during step and jump forward lunge in badminton. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(3S), 232-242.

23.  Sharawardi, N. S. A., Choo, Y. H., Chong, S. H., & Mohamad, N. I. (2018). Integration fcm-rbfn with butterworth noise filteration frequency for isotonic muscle fatigue analysis. International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications

24. Chinnasee, C., Mohamad, N. I., Nadzalan, A. M., Sazili, A. H. A., Hemapandha, W., Pimjan, L., ... & Tan, K. (2017). Lower limb kinematics analysis during roundhouse kick among novices in Muay Thai. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6S), 1002-1010.

25.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., Tan, K., Janep, M., Hamzah, S., & Chinnasee, C. (2017). Muscle activation analysis of step and jump forward lunge among badminton players. Journal of Engineering and Science Research 1 (2): 60-65

26.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2017). The effects of step versus jump forward lunge exercise training on muscle architecture among recreational badminton players. World Applied Sciences Journal, 35(8), 1581-1587.

27.  Iskandar, M. M., Mohamad, N. I., Othman, S., & Nadzalan, A. M. (2017). Metabolic cost during tyre and rope functional training. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6S), 1050-1062.

28.  Iskandar, M. M., Mohamad, N. I., & Othman, S. (2017). Kesan latihan menggunakan tali dan tayar terhadap kecergasan kardiovaskular, kuasa puncak, dan komposisi tubuh. Jurnal Sains Sukan dan Pendidikan Jasmani, 6(1), 53-67.

 

29.  Salleh, O. M., Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., & Rahmat, A. (2017). Repeated sprint ability depending on the level of condition among university soccer players. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(6), 506-514.

30.  Ishak, A., Ahmad, H., Mohamed, N. I., & Rosman, N. A. (2017). The effects of different volumes of dynamic stretching on 20-M repeated sprint ability performance. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6S), 1041-1049.

31.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Low, J. F. L., Ahmad, R., & Waqqash, E. (2017). Fascicle behaviour analysis during forward lunge exercise: the comparisons between training loads. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6S), 1090-1101.

32.  Nadzalan, A. M., Rittisorakrai, C., Mohamad, N. I., & Chan, E. W. M. (2017). 4. Fascicle behaviour analysis of step and jump forward lunge among badminton players (36-44). Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 6(2), 36-44.

33.  Low, J. F. L., Mohamad, N. I., Ong, K. B., Aziz, S. A., Abdullah, M. R., & Maliki, A. B. H. M. (2017). The developmental pathways of Malaysian elite youth badminton players. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(2S), 842-857.

34.  Othman, S., Mohamad, N. I., Iskandar, M. M., & Omar, K. A. (2017). Social environment influence lifestyle of youth in rural area. Environment-behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2(5), 9-15.

35.  Sharawardi, N. S. A., Choo, Y. H., Chong, S. H., & Mohamad, N. I. (2017, December). A comparison of butterworth noise filteration w for isotonic muscle fatigue analysis. In International Conference on Health Information Science (pp. 232-241). Springer, Cham.

36.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Low, J. F. L., Tan, K., Janep, M., & Hamzah, S. (2017). Kinetics analysis of step and jump forward lunge among badminton players. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6S), 1011-1023.

37.  Iskandar, M. M., Mohamad, N., & Othman, S. (2017). Physical activity and bmi level: youth in low-cost housing kuala lumpur. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 25.

38.  Othman, S., Iskandar, M. M., & Mohamed, N. I. (2016). Well-being assessment of youth in urban marginalized community. Environment-behaviour Proceedings Journal, 1(3), 60-68.

39.  Sharawardi, N. S. A., Choo, Y. H., Chong, S. H., & Mohamad, N. I. (2016, December). Isotonic muscle fatigue prediction for sport training using artificial neural network modelling. In International Conference on Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition (pp. 582-591). Springer, Cham.

40.  Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2016). Relationship between lower body muscle architecture and lunges performance. Journal of Sports Science & Physical Education, 5(2), 15-23.

41.  Jani, J., bin Mohd Shariff, A. R., bin Salimin, N., bin Shahril, M. I., binti Jusoh, N., Lee, J. L. F., ... & bin Madon, M. S. (2016). Penilaian pelaksanaan program ijazah sarjana muda pendidikan, fakulti sains sukan dan kejurulatihan. Jurnal Sains Sukan dan Pendidikan Jasmani, 5(1), 77-94.

42.  Iskandar, M. M., Mohamad, N. I., & Othman, S. (2016). Nilai bmi dan tahap aktiviti fizikal belia yang tinggal di rumah pangsa kos rendah di lembah pantai, kuala lumpur. In Seminar Penyelidikan Kebangsaan (pp. 50-58)

43.  Nadzalan, A. M., Lee, J. L. F., & Mohamad, N. I. (2015). The effects of focus attention instructions on strength training performances. International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences, 3(6), 418-423.

44.  Rumpf, M. C., Cronin, J. B., Mohamad, I. N., Mohamad, S., Oliver, J. L., & Hughes, M. G. (2015). The effect of resisted sprint training on maximum sprint kinetics and kinematics in youth. European Journal of Sport Science, 15(5), 374-381.

45.  Rumpf, M. C., Cronin, J. B., Mohamad, I. N., Mohamad, S., Oliver, J. L., & Hughes, M. G. (2014). Kinetic asymmetries during running in male youth. Physical Therapy in Sport, 15(1), 53-57.

46.  Sazili, A. H. A, Hashim, A., Ong, K. B., & Mohammad, N. I. (2015, May). Influence of saddle forward and backward on gastrocnemius muscle activation during cycling. In the 1 st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development

47.  Hamezah, R. S., Jusoh. N., & Mohamad, N.I. (2015). Hydration status, sprint performance and physiological responses during Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA) training session. Journal of physical activity, sports & exercise.

48.  Rumpf, M. C., Cronin, J. B., Mohamad, I. N., Mohamad, S., Oliver, J., & Hughes, M. (2014). Acute effects of sled towing on sprint time in male youth of different maturity status. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26(1), 71-75.

49.  Rosni, M.H.N.B.M., Abas, N.G., Mohamad, N.I. (2014). Reliability of overhead medicine ball throw test as a muscular power assessment tool. In National Research Seminar 2014 (pp. 1-7)

50.  Mohamad, N. I., Abas, N. G., Jawum, C., Wan, L. W., & Hamezah, R. S. (2014). Squat one-repetition maximum profile of upsi-masum athletes: steps towards proper strength training prescription and monitoring. In National Research Seminar 2014 (pp.14-20).

51.  Mohamad, N. I., Rumpf, M. C., Tan, E. C., & Abas, N. G. (2014). Acute effect of standardized load resistance training on cardio-respiratory responses in recreationally active participants. In Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE) Conference (pp. 6)

BACK TO MENU >

Selected Research 2014-2019

External Grants

1. Development Of New Badminton-Specific Assessment For Lower Limb Kinematics And Kinetics Output : Predictor Of In-Court Speed And Strength, NGO - RM11662, 01-01-2014 to 01-07-2015 (Ong Kuan ,Meor Shamsul Mahfudz Jeffry (pelajar sarjana tajaan geran),Jeffrey Low Fook Lee) - Geran Antarabangsa/ Swasta/ NGO (Badminton World Federation)  

2. Development of Physical Literacy Assessment Module for 5-6 Years Old Children: The First Step Toward National Profiling, PRIME MINISTER DEPARTMENT - RM50000, 03-04-2017 to 03-04-2018 (Asmadi bin Ishak,Thariq Khan bin Azizuddin Khan,Ali bin Md Nadzalan,Hishamuddin bin Ahmad) - Geran Agensi Kerajaan (NCDRC)

3.  Assessment and development of multiple types of repeated sprint ability (RSA) training methods for soccer specific sprint performance enhancement with specific linkage to game formation used, Ministry of Higher Education - RM67000.5, 01-10-2013 to 01-10- 2015 (Omar bin Md Salleh,Normah binti Jusoh,Jeffrey Low Fook Lee) - Geran Agensi Kerajaan (RAGS)

Internal Grants

4.  Comparison between student centred versus lecturer centred learning approach in physical conditioning short course, UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS - RM6779, 01-12-2017 to 01-12-2018 (Ali bin Md Nadzalan,Jaffry bin Zakaria,Gunathevan a/l Elumalai) - Geran Universiti

5.  Acute Metabolic And Mechanical Effect Of Power - Lifting As A Training Approach On Recreationally Trained Athletes, UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS - RM6518, 15-07-2013 to 15-07-2014 (Ruaibah Yazani binti Tengah,Jeffrey Low Fook Lee) - Geran Universiti

BACK TO MENU >

Selected Teaching 2014-2019

QSS1013 / QSU3013 Training Methodology & Physical Conditioning (3 credit hours) Evaluation 1  Evaluation 2   Evaluation 3  

QAC3053 Speed, Agility & Power Training (3 credit hours)  Evaluation 1    Evaluation 2

QAC3063 Resistance Training (3 credit hours)  Evaluation 1   

QKU3013  Concept of Health & Healthy Lifestyle (3 credit hours)

QAE3013  Issues and Problems Solving in Coaching (3 credit hours)  Evaluation 1   Evaluation 2    

QSS6024  Experimental Design in Exercise Science (4 credit hours)

BACK TO MENU >

Selected Completed Postgrad Main-Supervision  2014-2019

1.  Ali Bin Md Nadzalan, Supervisor, (Biomechanical Analysis and Training Adaptations of Different Lunge Protocols), 17-07-2014 until 13-06-2017, (Completed) (PhD)

2.  Mohd Mohni bin Iskandar, Supervisor, (Kos Metabolik Latihan Menggunakan Tayar dan Tali serta Kesannya Terhadap Kecergasan Kardiovaskular, Kuasa dan Komposisi Tubuh), 30-05-2014 until 18-04-2017, (Completed) (PhD)

3.  Azrena Zaireen binti Ahmad Zahudi, (Mod A), Supervisor, (The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) During the Inter-Set Rest Period on Rate of Muscle Activation During Strength Training Exercise), 06-09-2011 until 22-07-2014, (Completed)

4.  Afizudin bin Idrus, (Mod A), Supervisor, (The Influence of Supporting Leg On Strength and Balance During Maximal Instep Kick Towards Kicking Performance Among UPSI Futsal Recreational Players), 22-10-2012 until 19-04-2016, (Completed)

5. Abdul Hafiz Bin Ahmad Sazili, (Mod A), Supervisor, (Influence of Different Body Position and Saddle Setup on Muscles Activity and Joint Kinematic During Cycling), 03-07-2013 until 14-02-2017, (Completed)

6.  Zulkernain bin Marzuki, (Mod B), Supervisor, (Profil dan Korelasi Daya, Kuasa dan Halaju dalam Ujian Lompatan Horizontal dan Vertikal Atlet Pecut UPSI), 18-07-2011 until 22-07-2014, (Completed) (Completed)

7.  Daung Anak Bungkong, (Mod B), Supervisor, (Comparison of Muscle Activation Level During the Performance of Modified Razor Curl and Nordic Curl Exercises), 23-10-2013 until 15-10-2015, (Completed)

8.  Mohd Redzuan Bin Amat, (Mod B), Supervisor, (Ciri-ciri Antrapometri dan Tahap Kematangan Fizikal Pemain Bola Sepak Bawah 12 dan 15 Tahun MSSPK), 06-02-2014 until 14-03-2017, (Completed)

9.  Mohadzir Bin Haji Mokhtar, (Mod B), Supervisor, (Ciri-ciri Antropometri, Somatotaip, Kekuatan Kaki dan Pencapaian Pemain Bola Sepak MSSPK Perak Bawah 15 dan 18 Tahun), 26-02-2015 until 13-06-2017, (Completed)

10.  Kigen Anak Satong, (Mod B), Supervisor, (Kinetic, Kinematic and Muscle Activation between Maximal and SubMaximal Squat Among Novice Lifters), 30-04-2015 until 13-03-2018, (Completed)

11.  Sharon Kezia Leela Sanjivee A/P Sundararaj, (Mod B), Supervisor, (The Acute Response of 3 Minutes Versus 5 Minutes Rest Interval After Squat Exercise on Standing Broad Jump Distance and Leg Maxsimum Force Output), 23-09-2015 until 14-02-2017, (Completed)

BACK TO MENU >

Random Selected Consultations  2014-2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

INVOLVEMENT

Some of  current and past organizations that has/had ikhwan's  involvement in research and/or education and/or training

Human Performance...

What is the meaning of human performance? Do strength & conditioning only applies to elite athletes within competitive sporting environment only? The answers will varied from one individuals to another, from one institutions to another. Human performance is about their capabilities and skills to perform their needs and wants in daily life. It is not just about competitive sports per se.  Strength and conditioning  is about reshaping the human body with muscular strength as it pinnacle. It is about physical strength as the prominent contributors to physical performance and its interaction with other component of fitness, for systematic manipulation of stimulus and adaptation, in a planned exercise and training program. 

19th October 2017

 

Nur Ikhwan Mohamad,

Faculty of Sports Science & Coaching,

Sultan Idris Education University,

35900, Tanjung Malim,

Perak, MALAYSIA.

  • Instagram
  • Twitter
  • YouTube

© 2010-2020 NIM & RSH

Disclaimer: The webmaster, shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site. The views on this site are not those of the Sultan Idris Education University or any organizations linked to the authors. www.sigconditioning.com is also reachable from www.nurikhwan.com

FULL DISCLAIMER  ::  PRIVACY POLICY  ::