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UPSI Strength & Conditioning Conference 2020 (UPSISC2020)


Effectiveness of instruction method on muscle activation, kinematic output and kinetic output during vertical based strength training.

Roshdan Ahmad

Faculty of Sports Science & Coaching, UPSI

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of instruction methods on muscle activation, kinematic output and kinetic output vertical based strength training. A total of 30 men aged 19-29 years were selected as study participants. Participants consisted of individuals who were recreationally active in physical activity. The participants of this study were randomly divided into verbal instruction groups and video instructions. After the pre-test in the first week, all participants went through an 8-week intervention session and were followed by a post-test. Mega Electronics Wireless Bioamplifier 16 channel EMG System by DELSYS TRIGNO has been used to measure muscle activation, 6 Axis force platform Model AMTI BP400600HF to measure output kinetics, and Vicon T10s are used to measure output kinematics. MANOVA was used to determine significant differences in muscle activation, kinematic output and kinetic output for both groups of instruction, verbal and video methods in pre- and post-test, One-way ANCOVA was used to compare the effectiveness of strength training using the vertical (squat) to the kinematic output, kinetic output and muscle activation between verbal and video instruction groups. The results of the study found that there was no significant difference for both groups in the pre-test and post-test. Comparison between groups; during squat no significant difference for muscle activation, kinematic output only ankle angle, while kinetic output no significant differences. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate the role of instructional methods on muscle activation, output kinematics and output kinetics even with significantly less clarity. This is due to the possibility that the almost identical level of physical ability of the participants produced such findings. For further study, manipulating the body mechanical among the participants, less focus on the smooth muscle among the participants, and the study of how muscle activation during the learning of a particular skill or movement.

Roshdan Ahmad

Roshdan Ahmad is senior lecturer in faculty of Sport Science and Coaching at the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia. 


PhD Candidate, Master of Ed. (Physical & Health)

Teaching Certificate (Maktab Perguruan Kinta, Ipoh ’88)

Special Teaching Certificate (Maktab Perguruan Ilmu Khas ’92)

IAAF Level 1



Track & Field

100m, 200m & relay (MSS Kelantan to MSSM track & field ’83 & ’84)

Relay 4x100m (representing Kelantan to MAAU track & field ’84)

100m & 4x100m (representing Kuala Lumpur to SUKMA ’86)  



Physical Education Teacher (’89 – 2006)

Physical Education Head of Committee

District Sport Secretary

Master of Trainer (Physical Education & Sport Science) Jabatan Pelajaran Johor



MSS Selangor Track & Field

MSS Kelantan Track & Filed

MSS Johor Tennis Team

UPSI Track & Field Team

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